Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre

Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre

Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre


Die Behandlung von venösen Geschwüren, nass

Gebiet der Erfindung Field of the Invention. Die Erfindung betrifft therapeutische Verwendungen von Glucan. The invention relates to therapeutic uses of glucan. Hintergrund und der Erfindung Background of the invention and.

Glucan ist ein Sammelbegriff, der ein Oligo- oder Polysaccharid bezeichnet, das vorwiegend oder gänzlich aus dem Monosaccharid D-Glukose aufgebaut ist.

Glucan is a generic term referring to an oligo- or polysaccharide composed predominantly or wholly of the monosaccharide D-glucose. Glucane sind in der Natur in vielen tausend Formen, die Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre ein Ergebnis der hochgradig unterschiedlichen Art und Weise, auf die die einzelnen Glukoseeinheiten verbunden sein können glykosidische Verknüpfungenund auch der sterischen Gesamtstruktur des Stammmoleküls möglich sind, weit verbreitet.

Glucans in nature in many, are widespread thousand forms, as a result of highly different way to the individual glucose units can be connected glycosidic linkagesand the steric overall structure of the parent molecule are possible. Das in dieser Erfindung genannte Glucan ist typischerweise eine lineare Kette mittlerer Glukopyranoseeinheiten mit einer variablen Anzahl an Seitenzweigen relativ kurzer Länge.

The glucan referred to in this invention is typically a linear chain of medium glucopyranose units with a variable number of side branches of relatively short length. Glucan ist ein gut beschriebenen Molekül. Glucan is a molecule Ich begann Varizen zu erscheinen described. This form of glucan is mainly including yeasts and molds and in some bacteria found in the cell wall of most fungi.

Glucan ist, in Kombination mit anderen Polysacchariden wie Mannan und Chitin, für die Form und die mechanische Festigkeit der Zellwand verantwortlich.

Glucan, is responsible, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre combination with other polysaccharides such as mannan and chitin, the shape and the mechanical strength of the cell wall. Das Glucan macht typischerweise annähernd 40 Gew. The glucan typically constitutes approximately 40 wt. Wie wird man von der Anfangsphase der Krampfadern loswerden et al ; Manners et al The chemical structure of the glucan of the fungal cell wall has been studied in detail, the following publications "sentinel articles" have been published: Glucane der Pilzzellwände sind lange Zeit in der Industrie, insbesondere in der Nahrungsmittelindustrie, gewöhnlicherweise in einer halb gereinigten Form, verwendet worden: Ihre Verwendungen haben die Verwendung als Stabilisatoren, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, Bindemittel, Verdickungsmittel und oberflächenaktive Materialien eingeschlossen.

Glucans of the fungal cell wall are long time in the industry, particularly in the food industry, has usually been used in a semi-purified form: Their uses have included use as stabilizers, binders, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, thickeners and surface active materials, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre.

Es ist auch seit mehr als 40 Jahren bekannt gewesen, dass Glucane der Pilzzellwände biologisch aktiv sind, wobei sie eine Vielzahl an Wirkungen auf die reticuloendothelialen Systeme und Immunsysteme von Tieren ausüben. It has also been known for Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre than 40 years that glucans of fungal cell walls are biologically active, exerting a number of effects on the reticuloendothelial systems and immune systems of animals. Die herausragende biologische Wirkung ist in dieser Hinsicht ihre Fähigkeit, die Aktivität der körpereigenen primären Abwehrzellen — der Makrophage und der neutrophile Leukozyt — nicht spezifisch zu stimulieren.

The outstanding biological effect in this respect is their ability to the activity of the body's primary defense cells - the macrophage and neutrophil leukocyte - not to stimulate specific. The interaction between glucan and its receptor producing such stimulatory effects as enhanced phagocytosis Riggi and Di Luzio,increased cell size Patchen and Lotzova,enhanced cell proliferation Deimann and Fahimi,Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, increased adhesion and increased chemotactic activity Niskanen et al.

Es ist berichtet worden, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, dass die zuvor erwähnten biologischen Reaktionen des Glucans der Pilzzellwände zu einer Vielzahl klinischer Wirkungen führen, die verstärkte Widerstandsfähigkeit gegen Infektionen mit Pilzen Williams et al.

William et al, or intralesionaler application Mansell et al. Es ist leicht zu erkennen, dass diese klinischen Wirkungen hochgradig heilsam und bedeutsam sind sowie eine Möglichkeit darstellen, Pharmazeutika auf Basis von Glucanen der Pilzzellwände, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, wie zum Beispiel Pharmazeutika mit möglicherweise weitreichender Anwendung sowohl in der Veterinärmedizin als auch in der Humanmedizin, zu entwickeln.

It is easy to see that these clinical effects are highly beneficial and important and represent an opportunity to pharmaceuticals based on glucans of fungal cell walls, to develop such as pharmaceuticals with potentially far-reaching application in both veterinary medicine and in human medicine.

Von den verschiedenen getesteten Glucanen der Pilzzellwände hat sich das der Hefe Saccharomyces cerivisiae hinsichtlich der Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit als ein Immunstimulans bei Tieren und Menschen als annehmbar erwiesen.

Of the various tested glucans of fungal cell walls of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in terms of efficacy and safety has proven to be an immune stimulant in animals and humans to be acceptable. Sc-Glucan hat sich als ein Immunstimulans bei Tieren in unterschiedlichen Formen biologisch Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre erwiesen.

Sc-glucan has been shown to be biologically active an immune stimulant in animals in different forms. These include a a hochmolekuargewichtige typically greater than 3 x 10 6 dwater-insoluble, present in microparticles form or b forms with smaller molecular weight typically less thandwhich are dispersible or soluble in water. It is described that water solubility by cleavage of the present in large microparticles Glucanform is achieved Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre into smaller molecules using processes such as enzymatic digestion or adjusting drastic pH values, or by complexing to salts such as amines, sulphates and phosphates.

The main advantage of the smaller, water soluble form with respect to the larger, present as a micro-particle form that it is safer when by parenteral routes of administration, such. Es ist ebenso wahrscheinlich, dass die kleiner dimensionierten Moleküle auf einer molekularen Basis besser bioverfügbar sind. It is also likely that the smaller Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre molecules are more bio-available on a molecular basis.

Bis heute ist es weder technisch möglich noch wirtschaftlich durchführbar gewesen, Glucan auf kommerzieller Basis zu synthetisieren. To date, it has been economically feasible neither technically possible nor to synthesise glucan on a commercial basis. Wie nachfolgend beschreiben, befasst sich diese Erfindung mit therapeutischen Verwendungen von Glucan.

As described below, this invention is concerned with therapeutic uses of glucan. The document US-5, describes a composition and method for protecting the skin against damage by UV radiation or solar radiation, topical application of a composition, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre contains an extract of yeast cell walls, the glucans, comprising on the skin.

Zusammenfassung der Erfindung Summary of the Invention. Diese Erfindung ist auf die Verwendung von Glucan zur Herstellung eines Medikaments zur Behandlung von Hautulzeration oder Knochenbruch oder zur Verstärkung der Fixierung implantierter, orthopädischer Hilfsmittel gerichtet. This invention is directed to the use of glucan for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of skin ulceration or bone fracture or the enhancement of fixation of implanted orthopedic devices.

Unter einem weiteren Gesichtspunkt beschäftigt sich diese Erfindung mit einem Verfahren zur Behandlung von Hautulzeration oder Knochenbruch oder zur Verstärkung der Fixierung implantierter, orthopädischer Hilfsmittel, das das Verabreichen von Glucan in Verbindung mit einem oder mehreren pharmazeutisch oder veterinär annehmbaren Trägern oder Exzipientien an ein Subjekt umfasst.

In another aspect, this invention is concerned with a method for the treatment of skin ulceration or bone fracture or the enhancement of fixation of implanted orthopedic devices, which comprises administering glucan in association with one or more pharmaceutically or veterinary acceptable carriers or excipients to a subject, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre. Unter einem anderen Gesichtspunkt beschäftigt sich diese Erfindung mit einem Mittel zur Behandlung von Hautulzeration oder Knochenbruch oder zur Verstärkung der Fixierung implantierter, orthopädischer Hilfsmittel, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, das Glucan gegebenenfalls in Verbindung mit einem oder mehreren Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre annehmbaren Trägern oder Exzipientien umfasst.

In another aspect, this invention deals with an agent for the treatment of skin ulceration or bone fracture or the enhancement of fixation of implanted orthopedic devices which comprises glucan optionally in association with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers or excipients. These therapeutic uses of glucan, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, an effective amount glucan is used.

Was eine wirksame Menge ausmacht, wird von den besonderen, zu behandelnden Beschwerden sowie von An und Form der Verabreichung abhängen. What constitutes an effective amount will depend upon the particular condition being treated, as well as to and form of administration. In general, a composition or medicament glucan in an amount of 0.

Topisch oder parenteral appliziertes Glucan ist nämlich in der Lage, die Heilungsreaktion bei Hautwunden mit normalen Heilungsmechanismen zu beschleunigen. Topically or parenterally-applied glucan is in fact able to accelerate the healing response in skin wounds with normal healing mechanisms. Im Allgemeinen nimmt man an, dass Glucan dies durch Aktivierung von Wundmakrophagen erzielt. In general, it is assumed that glucan achieves this through activation of wound macrophages.

Makrophagen sind kritische Zellen im Heilungsprozess, die eine Reihe von Cytokinen und Wachstumsfaktoren erzeugen, die verschiedene Komponeten Adams Wurzel Krampf Heilungskaskade initiieren — nämlich Fibroplasie, Collagenerzeugung, Angiogenese, Epithelialisierung und Collagenvernetzung.

Macrophages are critical cells in the healing process that produce a number of cytokines and growth factors that different Komponeten healing cascade initiated - namely fibroplasia, collagen production, angiogenesis, epithelialization and collagen cross-linking. In diesem Prozess spielt der Makrophage eine Schlüsselrolle beim Regulieren, wobei er das Verfahren sowohl initiiert als auch hilft, sicherzustellen, dass das Verfahren in einer koordinierten und integrierten An und Weise voranschreitet.

In this process, the macrophage plays a key role in regulating, in which he both initiated the process and helps to ensure that the process in a coordinated and integrated manner on and progresses, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre. Es wird angenommen, dass es eine primäre Wirkung des Glucans ist, eine temporale Beschleunigung der Heilungskaskade zu erzeugen.

It is believed that it is a primary effect of the glucan to produce a temporal acceleration of the healing cascade. Dermale Geschwüre sind typischerweise chronische Wunden, die einen ziemlich unterschiedlichen Satz an physiologischen Eigenschaften, innerhalb der Wunde zu wirken, im Vergleich zu akuten Operationswunden, aufweisen.

Dermal ulcers typically are chronic wounds which to cast a quite different set of physiological properties within the wound, as compared to acute surgical wounds, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, have. Wohingegen die Physiologie des Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre für akute Operationswunden gut beschrieben ist, ist sie für chronische Geschwüre schlecht bestimmt.

Ulcers typically show either because of constant irritation or constant pressure such as decubitus ulcers or bedsoresor due to restricted blood supply such as in individuals with arterial ischaemia or venous thrombosis or infection such as 'tropical' ulcers or nerve damage 'neurotrophic' ulcers or diabetes poor to negligible healing.

Geschwüre besitzen verschiedene pathologische Befunde, und die zugrundeliegenden Ursachen können, wo sie bekannt sind, ziemlich verschieden sein. Ulcers have different pathological findings and the underlying causes can, where they are known to be quite different.

Various types of ulcers which can be treated according to this invention include those associated with physical injury radiation, thermal burns, decubitus, insect bitesChitosan für venöse Geschwüre blood flow arterial, venousinfection bone, pyrogenenes, synergistic gangrene, syphilis, tuberculosis, tropical diseases, fungal diseasesneoplasia primary skin tumor, metastases, leukemia and neurotrophic lesions spinal cord lesions, peripheral neuropathies are connected.

Geschwüre, die mit dysfunktioneller Heilung verbunden sind, variieren stark hinsichtlich der Schwere: Ulcers associated with dysfunctional healing vary greatly in severity: In particular, the larger ulcers can be debilitating and restrictive and require intensive and expensive therapy for treatment.

Control of wound sepsis, regular wound debridement, regular dressings, hypostatic drainage and corrective surgery are some of the current standard therapies. However, wound treatment therapies are currently accessible, most common non-uniformly successful, require considerable periods of time to achieve favorable results, the patient compliance are with bad proportions connected are generally more expensive and are associated with a high frequency of resistance occurrence of ulcers.

Es ist von Margolis J. It is Margolis J. Dermatological Surgery 21 2 has been noted that "a paucity of data exists that handles the effectiveness of a topical agent for the treatment of pressure ulcers adequate". Es kann daher erkannt werden, dass in Anbetracht der hohen Häufigkeit von Geschwüren in der Gesellschaft und die Behandlungskosten für die Gesellschaft ein dringender Bedarf besteht, verbesserte Therapien Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre entwickeln. It can be seen therefore that there is in view of the high incidence of ulcers in society and the treatment cost to society is an urgent need to develop improved therapies.

Idealerweise sollte eine derartige Therapie eine hohe Erfolgsrate aufweisen, komfortabel zu verwenden sein Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre schnell eine Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre Reaktion erzeugen, um die Einhaltung durch den Patienten zu ermöglichen sowie vorzugsweise preiswert sein, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre.

Ideally, such a therapy should have a high rate of success, be convenient to use, and quickly produce a clinical response, to enable patient compliance and preferably be inexpensive. Eine besondere Schwierigkeit bei der Entwicklung einer einheitlich erfolgreichen Behandlung, die eine Verbesserung gegenüber gegenwärtigen Behandlungsmodalitäten sein kann, ist die Uneinheitlichkeit der verschiedenen Arten von Geschwüren, bei Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre sowohl die zugrundeliegenden, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, ursächlichen Krankheitsverläufe als auch die Pathophysiologie innerhalb der Wunden eine beträchtliche Abweichung zeigen, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre.

A particular difficulty in developing a uniformly successful treatment, which Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre be an improvement over current Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre modalities, is the inconsistency of the different types of ulcers, in which both the underlying causal disease processes and the pathophysiology within the wounds show considerable variation, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre. Diese verwirrende Variabilität ist das allgemein schlechte Verständnis davon, welche der verschiedenen Komponenten der Heilungsreaktion dysfuntionell ist und daher zur primären Pathologie der dysfunktionellen Heilungsreaktion beiträgt.

This confusing variability is the general poor understanding of which is dysfuntionell the various components of the healing response and, therefore, contributes to the primary pathology of the dysfunctional healing response. Damit kann ein erfolgreicher Antagonismus der Dysfunktion eines besonderen Teils der Heilungskaskade bei einer Art von Geschwür nicht notwendigerweise bei einer anderen An von Geschwür erfolgreich sein.

Thus, a successful antagonism of dysfunction of a particular part of the healing cascade with a type of ulcer not necessarily be successful in another ulcer on by. Insbesondere gibt es keinen Beweis dafür, dass Immunsuppression lokaler Wunden oder Makrophagendysfunktion pathologische Schlüsselmerkmale sind, oder dass die Verstärkung lokaler Immunmechanismen innerhalb derartiger Geschwüre zu verstärkten Heilungsreaktionen führen würde, wie es bei unkomplizierten, operativen Hautwunden ohne dysfunktionelle Heilungsreaktionen beobachtet wird.

In particular, there is no evidence that immunosuppression local wounds or macrophage dysfunction are Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre key features, or that the reinforcement of local immune mechanisms would lead within such ulcers to increased healing reactions, as is observed in uncomplicated, surgical skin wounds without dysfunctional healing reactions.

Daher war es völlig unerwartet zu finden, dass topische Applikation von Glucan bei Dekubitus, venöser Statis und artiellen, ischämischen Geschwüren schnelle und wirksame Heilungsreaktionen an diesen Wunden induziert. Therefore, it was quite unexpected to find that topical application of glucan in pressure ulcers, venous statis and arterial ischemic ulcers induced rapid and effective healing reactions on these wounds.

This was unexpected a because the primary causative factor of these types is affected by ulcers blood supply and there is no evidence to suggest that this would be a response to the antagonism by an immune stimulant, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, and b because it could be expected that, even where it might be possible to promote the healing response, the impaired vascular system hinders the healing response on the wound, as is observed with current treatment modalities.

Die heilende Wirkung von Glucan bei diesen Arten von Geschwüren ist es sogar noch bemerkenswerter, wenn Heilung für Krampfadern und Blutgerinnsel bedenkt, dass eine vollständige Heilungsreaktion in der Abwesenheit anderer unterstützender Therapien wie Sepsiskontrolle, hypostatische Ableitung und Korrektur der primären Ursache erzielt werden kann.

The healing effect of glucan in these types of ulcers, it is even more remarkable when one considers that a complete healing response can be achieved in the absence of other supportive therapies such as sepsis control, hypo Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre dissipation and correction of the primary cause.


Natural Cosmetics - Part 6 Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre

The antimicrobial properties of silver have been known to cultures all around the world for many centuries. The Phonecians stored water and other liquids in silver coated bottles to discourage contamination by microbes Wikipedia: Inthe antibacterial effectiveness of various metals were noted and this property was named the oligodynamic effect.

It was later found that out of all the metals with antimicrobial properties, silver has the most effective antibacterial action and the least toxicity to animal Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre Guggenbichler et al. Silver became commonly used in medical treatments, such as those of wounded soldiers in World War I, to deter microbial growth Saltlakemetals. Once antibiotics were discovered, the use of silver as a bactericidal agent decreased.

Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, there has recently been a renewed interest in using silver as an antibacterial agent.

The availability of new laboratory technologies such as radioactive isotopes and electron microscopy has greatly enabled us to investigate the antibacterial mechanism of silver in recent years Fox and Modak, ; Feng et al.

Shown are 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein patterns obtained from suspensions of E. Some spots indicate decreased amounts of protein expression after reaction with a ppb solution, compared to results after reaction with a 0 ppb solution. Four spots with a decrease to less than one-third of the original amount are marked with open circles.

The probable identity of the proteins represented by the circled spots were determined by the NCBI and Swiss-Prot databases. Fructose-bisphosphate adolase was identified as another possible downregulated protein through this same process not shown on this gel.

Treatment with silver leads to dehydration of microbial cells. A Staphylococcus aureus without silver treatment as found on a catheter. B Staphylococcus aureus on a silver-containing material with microdispersed silver particles throughout the matrix.

Both images were captured using scanning electron microscopy, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre. Notice the shrunken appearance of the cells Guggenbichler et al. Percent completion of reactions of various silver compounds with human serum, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre. At the intervals designated, portions were removed and centrifuged, and the clear supernatants were Varizen rote Punkte to determine the amount of unreacted silver compound.

Although the antimicrobial properties of silver have been known for centuries, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, we have only recently begun to understand the mechanisms by which silver inhibits bacterial growth.

It is thought that silver atoms bind to thiol groups -SH in enzymes and subsequently cause the deactivation of enzymes. Silver forms stable S-Ag bonds with thiol-containing compounds in the cell membrane that are involved in transmembrane energy generation and ion transport Klueh et al, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre.

It is also believed that silver can take part in catalytic oxidation reactions that result in the formation of disulfide bonds R-S-S-R. Silver does this by catalyzing the reaction between oxygen molecules in the cell and hydrogen atoms of thiol groups: The silver-catalyzed formation of disulfide Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre could possibly change the shape of cellular enzymes and subsequently affect their function.

The silver-catalyzed formation of disulfide bonds can lead to changes in protein structure and the inactivation of key enzymes, such as those needed for cellular respiration Davies and Etris, It is hypothesized that silver ions bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit, deactivating the ribosome complex and preventing translation of proteins Yamanaka et al.

In one way or another, all of these proteins play a role in energy and ATP production for the cell, so the decreased expression of any one of these proteins could lead to cell death Yamanaka et al. Another one of the suggested mechanisms of the antimicrobial activity of silver was proposed by Klueh et al. Although this has yet to be proved, it has been shown that silver ions do associate with DNA once they enter the cell Fox and Modak, Most of the proposed mechanisms involve silver entering the cell in order to cause damage, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre.

It is possible that silver ions get access to the interior of cells through transmembrane proteins that normally function to transport ions other than silver ions. Transmembrane proteins such as CopB-ATPase from Enterococcus hirae have been shown to be able to transport silver ions although its putative function is a copper transporter Solioz and Odermatt, This proves that there are ways for silver to be transported across the cell membrane even though specific silver transporters may not exist, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre.

In order for silver to have any antimicrobial properties, it must be in its ionized form Lok et al. Silver in its non-ionized form is inert Guggenbichler et al. The cells were exposed to AgNO 3 for hours before being prepared for microscopy.

The cell were then fixed and sliced with an ultramicrotome to produce ultrathin sections for transmission electron microscopy TEM. They also observed cell membrane detachment from the cell wall, cell wall damage, and electron dense granules outside and, in some instances, inside the cell Figure 3.

It was proposed that condensation of DNA occurred as a protective measure in order to protect the genetic information of the cell Feng et al. The electron dense granules that formed inside and outside the cell were extracted and subjected to X-ray microanalysis to determine their composition.

It was discovered that the granules were in part composed of silver and sulfur. This finding supports the idea that silver inactivates proteins by binding to sulfur-containing compounds Klueh et al. It has also been shown that treating cells with silver leads to cell shrinkage and dehydration Figure 4 Guggenbichler et al. The TEM images from Feng et al.

Damage to the cell membrane could lead to the leaking of cytoplasm from the cell, which would result in dehydrated and shrunken cells as shown by the SEM images from Guggenbichler et al. The first involves Foto von Krampfadern an den Beinen Anfangsstadium Foto charge of peptidoglycan molecules in the bacterial cell wall.

Gram-positive bacteria have more peptidoglycan than gram-negative bacteria because of their thicker cell walls, and because peptidoglycan is negatively charged and silver ions are positively charged, more silver may get trapped by peptidoglycan in gram-positive bacteria than in gram-negative bacteria Kawahara et al. The decreased susceptibility of gram-positive bacteria can also simply be explained by the fact Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria is thicker than that of gram-negative bacteria.

Fox and Modak explored the mechanism of prevention of burn wound infections by silver sulfadiazine. At the time of publication, it had been known for quite a while that silver sulfadiazine Figure 5 delivered in the form of a topical cream was effective Verschwörungen Wunden an den Füßen preventing infections in burn wounds, however Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre was not known if the antimicrobial activity was due entirely to the silver ions or if the sulfadiazine anion also contributed to the bactericidal effect.

Tests from the study showed that sulfadiazine from silver sulfadiazine does not get transported into cells as much as silver. Additionally, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, the rate at which certain silver containing compounds release silver ions into solution was measured by adding silver compounds to human serum and measuring the amount of unreacted Jod Krampf Bewertungen compound with increasing time Figure 6.

Notice in Figure 6 how silver sulfadiazine Ag sulfadiazine gradually releases the majority of its silver ions into solution over an extended period of time whereas silver nitrate immediately released all of its silver ions into solution Fox and Modak, If silver is employed as the primary antimicrobial agent in burn wound creams, the burn wound needs a steady supply of silver ions over a long period of time to kill off any microbes that could possibly infect the wound until it heals.

It has also been shown that when silver treatment is combined with other antimicrobial methods such as UV light, copper ions, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, or oxidizers, a synergistic effect is observed, that is bacterial growth is inhibited more by treatment with silver and an additional antimicrobial method than would be expected if the inhibition effects of silver and that additional antimicrobial method were summed Silvestry-Rodriguez et al.

Because silver can inflict a fair amount of Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre to the cell only once it gains access to the cytoplasm, it is believed that if some other antimicrobial method can give silver ions access to the cytoplasm sooner than if silver ions were working alone, a synergistic effect of the two methods would be observed Silvestry-Rodriguez et al.

Silver can be administered to cells in a various number of ways. Silver salts such as silver nitrate AgNO 3 are effective at providing a large quantity of silver ions all at once. Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre this reason, prolonged antimicrobial Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre from silver is best achieved by continuously releasing a moderate amount of silver ions, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre.

Zeolite Figure 7 is a porous matrix of sodium aluminosilicate that can Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre a large amount of silver ions in its micropores Monteiro et al. Silver ions are released from the zeolite matrix by exchange with other cations in solution and the amount released is proportional to the concentration of other cations in the solution Breck, as cited in Kawahara et al.

Because zeolite is already used in some toothpastes as a polishing material and the lack of silver toxicity to humans at concentrations such as those found in the MIC assays, the authors believed that silver zeolite would be a good compound to incorporate into dental materials, even those used in anaerobic conditions such as in periodontal pockets Kawahara et al.

Different sizes of silver nanoparticles. Images were captured using transmission electron microscopy Martinez-Castanon et al. Silver nanoparticles have been heavily studied as antimicrobial materials, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre. Their simple synthesis Figure 8 and highly effective observed antibacterial activity make them a very attractive form of silver administration.

To begin, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, nanoparticles with 7-nm, nm, and nm diameters were synthesized. The syntheses of the three different sized nanoparticles all used silver nitrate as a supply of silver ions and gallic acid as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The different sizes were produced by simply either altering the pH or irradiating the solutions with UV light. Transmission electron microscopy was used in the characterization of the nanoparticles to determine their average sizes Figure 9.

Once the sizes of the nanoparticles were confirmed, MIC assays were performed on E, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre. The results of the MIC assays showed that smaller nanoparticles have more of an inhibitory effect than larger nanoparticles and that S.

The result that S. Schematic illustration of the production of silver nanoparticles by reducing silver nitrate with citrate Monteiro et al. Gallic acid was used as a control in the MIC assays Figure 10 ; the silver nanoparticles were added to cell cultures in the MIC assays in the same solution in which they were produced, so it needed to be tested whether or not the gallic acid produced as a byproduct of the nanoparticle synthesis would have an effect on cell growth, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre.

For the MIC assay using E. The increased antimicrobial Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre of the smaller nanoparticles could be due to the fact that smaller particles have an easier time getting through the cell membrane and cell wall and that relative to larger nanoparticles, smaller particles have a greater surface area to volume ratio Martinez-Castanon et al.

The greater surface area to volume ratio of smaller nanoparticles means that Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre unit mass of silver, the smaller nanoparticles have more silver atoms in contact with the solution than do larger nanoparticles.

For smaller nanoparticles, this means that more of the silver atoms contained in the nanoparticle are able to take part in cell destruction processes. If only the outer layer of silver atoms of a silver nanoparticle are able to be ionized to silver ions, then Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre few large nanoparticles should produce less silver ions than a lot of small nanoparticles. Because silver ions are what impart antibacterial properties to a given silver-containing material, it makes sense that smaller silver nanoparticles have more antimicrobial effectiveness than larger silver nanoparticles.

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Ag nanoparticles. Smaller nanoparticles have greater antibacterial activity.

The concentration difference between nm and nm nanoparticles for E. In addition to size, nanoparticle shape also plays a role in antibacterial activity. The number of colonies that formed for each of the conditions was counted and graphs relating the number of formed colonies and silver concentration for each of the four types of silver tested were constructed Figure It was determined that the order of most antibacterial to least antibacterial of the four silver-containing compounds was triangular, spherical, rod-shaped, and AgNO 3.

This order of antibacterial activity is explained by the different types of facets on the nanoparticles. The triangular nanoparticles had more active facets electron dense facets than did the spherical nanoparticles. Thus, shape does have an effect on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles and nanoparticles with more active facets have more antibacterial activity. Antibacterial ability of silver nanoparticles is related to nanoparticle shape.

R2 values indicate the fit of the plot to a first-order exponential decay curve Pal et al. Colloidal silver, commonly sold as a health supplement, can cause argyria, an irreversible condition where the skin discolors to a bluish-gray tone www. The only known side effect of high exposure to or ingestion of silver is argyriaa permanent Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre where silver collects in the skin and other body tissues Wikipedia: Long-term ingestion of gram quantities silver, most times in the form of colloidal silver Figure 12is thought to be the cause of argyria Silvestry-Rodriguez et al.

Although argyria causes a blue-gray discoloration of the skin, Chitosan für venöse Geschwüre, it is not thought to be a health risk otherwise ATSDR: Depending on the degree of seriousness, argyria could be socially debilitating for some individuals Wikipedia:


Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) - causes, symptoms & pathology

You may look:
- Essig für Krampfadern Beine
Bioflavonoid, Bioflavonoidkomplex, Bioflavonoid-Konzentrat, Bioflavonoid-Extrakt, Bioflavonoide, Bioflavonoide d’Agrume, bioflavonoides d’Agrumes, Citrus.
- Gebet der trophischen Geschwür am Bein
Bioflavonoid, Bioflavonoidkomplex, Bioflavonoid-Konzentrat, Bioflavonoid-Extrakt, Bioflavonoide, Bioflavonoide d’Agrume, bioflavonoides d’Agrumes, Citrus.
- Expansion von Krampfadern in der Speiseröhre
These therapeutic uses of glucan, ist sie für chronische Geschwüre schlecht bestimmt. is well described Whereas the unzureichende venöse.
- Perfusion mit kalten Varizen
May 18,  · MOULDED BODY FOR MEDICALLY TREATING WOUNDS. European beispielsweise venöse Geschwüre, Alginate oder Chitosan.
- Krampfadern Ekzem mit Fotos
The invention relates to a resorbable and porous moulded body for medically treating wounds, in particular large, deep and very weepy wounds. The moulded body is.
- Sitemap


© 2018